While the Bronze Age is recognized as one of history’s most important phases, it’s been hard for historians to precisely date. The idea of the Bronze Age comes from a three-age system developed in the 19th century through which archaeologists and historians believe cultures evolved. These three ages are the Stone Age, the Bronze Age, and the Iron Age, and the concept of the system stems from the simultaneous development of museums in Europe during that time. In the Royal Museum of Nordic Antiquities in Denmark, Christian Jürgensen Thomsen, the director of the museum, began classifying objects of stone, bronze, or iron to better categorize and exhibit them. Each archaeological artifact was thus sorted according to their materials and further organized by shape and style. Through such methodology, working alongside archaeological reports, he was able to show how certain objects changed over time (Fagan 1996, 712). Such a typology, combined with stratigraphy noted in archaeological reports, was useful to early archaeologists with no reliable method for dating artifacts. By understanding which object came before or after, early archaeologists had a relative dating system with which to assess the age of an object or culture. This kind of system was useful to the archaeologists who often encountered objects from above-ground burials that lacked stratigraphy. When this three-age system reached England, John Lubbock expanded on it by applying cultural anthropology to the ages. Over time, other researchers would gradually add their interpretations to the system, with many arguing for sub-divisions of the Stone Age or the introduction of a Copper Age between the Neolithic and the Bronze Ages (Rowley-Conwy 2007, 243). The Bronze Age in Europe: The History and Legacy of Civilizations Across Europe from 3200-600 BCE looks at the different cultures that emerged over those crucial years. You will learn about the Bronze Age in Europe l 1. Language: English. Narrator: Dan Gallagher. Audio sample: http://samples.audible.de/bk/acx0/148028/bk_acx0_148028_sample.mp3. Digital audiobook in aax.
An ideal introduction to the history of Buddhism. Andrew Skilton - Senior Research Fellow in Buddhist Studies, Kings College, London - explains the development of the basic concepts of Buddhism and its spread across the continents during its 2,500 years of history. He begins with a close look at Buddhism in India, where it flourished until the 12th/13th century CE, charting the growth of different schools and practices. By the time it disappeared from its homeland midway through the millennium, it had become established in Central Asia and the Far East in a variety of forms. Skilton looks at Buddhism in Sri Lanka, Burma and Southeast Asia, China, Korea, Japan, Tibet and Mongolia and in countries where there are now only archeological remains, such as Iran. This is a fascinating and useful insight into the historical progress of one of the world´s great religions. PLEASE NOTE: When you purchase this title, the accompanying reference material will be available in your Library section along with the audio. 1. Language: English. Narrator: Jinananda. Audio sample: http://samples.audible.de/bk/dhrm/000024/bk_dhrm_000024_sample.mp3. Digital audiobook in aax.
It is a story like no other: an epic of endurance against destruction, of creativity in oppression, joy amidst grief, the affirmation of life against the steepest of odds. It spans the millennia and the continents - from India to Andalusia and from the bazaars of Cairo to the streets of Oxford. It takes you to unimagined places: to a Jewish kingdom in the mountains of southern Arabia; a Syrian synagogue glowing with radiant wall paintings; the palm groves of the Jewish dead in the Roman catacombs. And its voices ring loud and clear, from the severities and ecstasies of the Bible writers to the love poems of wine bibbers in a garden in Muslim Spain. And a great story unfolds. Not - as often imagined - of a culture apart, but of a Jewish world immersed in and imprinted by the peoples among whom they have dwelled, from the Egyptians to the Greeks, from the Arabs to the Christians. Which makes the story of the Jews everyone´s story, too. 1. Language: English. Narrator: Andrew Sachs, Saul Reichlin. Audio sample: http://samples.audible.de/bk/bbcw/007427/bk_bbcw_007427_sample.mp3. Digital audiobook in aax.
Politics is the second half of a single treatise by Aristotle (384 B.C.E - 322 B.C.E.), Ethics being the first. Both deal with one and the same subject: what Aristotle calls the philosophy of human affairs. He also refers to it as political science and social science. Aristotle collected and studied the constitutions of over 150 city states before writing his Politics. 1. Language: English. Narrator: Jim Killavey. Audio sample: http://samples.audible.de/bk/jimc/000215/bk_jimc_000215_sample.mp3. Digital audiobook in aax.
The Georgics was published in 29 BCE, and is the second major work by the Latin poet Virgil. Its a fascinating insight into rural life and farming of the time. 1. Language: English. Narrator: Cecil Day Lewis. Audio sample: http://samples.audible.de/bk/slnd/000159/bk_slnd_000159_sample.mp3. Digital audiobook in aax.
Confucius (551-479 BCE) taught a moral wisdom that would become a predominant social force in China from the second century BCE until the mid-20th century. Confucianism does not teach a central doctrine that a God or gods should be worshipped, but it does embrace a system of ritual and emphasizes humanistic virtues and values. Daoism is both a philosophy and a religion, seeking a life and a mind in harmony with nature. Yin and yang, the essential opposites, are seen as fundamental principles of the universe in many religious and philosophical discussions. The Religion, Scriptures, and Spirituality series describes the beliefs, religious practices, and the spiritual and moral commitments of the world´s great religious traditions. It also describes a religion´s way of understanding scripture, identifies its outstanding thinkers, and discusses its attitude and relationship to society. 1. Language: English. Narrator: Ben Kingsley. Audio sample: http://samples.audible.de/bk/blak/001635/bk_blak_001635_sample.mp3. Digital audiobook in aax.
Full-cast dramatization of Oedipus the King, the Athenian tragedy by Sophocles that was first performed c. 429 BCE. Featuring Douglas Campbell, Eric House and Robert Goodier. 1. Language: English. Narrator: Douglas Campbell. Audio sample: http://samples.audible.de/bk/slnd/000178/bk_slnd_000178_sample.mp3. Digital audiobook in aax.
By the seventh century BCE, Thrace was experiencing the migration of Cimmerians and Scythians. The result was that the northern Black Sea Scythians developed first on the territory of Byzantium, and trade and industrial colonization stretched from the Golden Horn to the Sea of Azov and the lower Don region. In addition, the Sarmatians and Getae on the lower Don were also involved in a profitable trade with this area. The continuing economic and political ties with the Don region and the Getae, with trade contacts reaching the Middle Don and the Southwestern Urals, even linked Byzantium with Russia prior to Constantine. From 580 to 300 BCE, Ionian colonization of the Bosporus gave rise to a number of systems that created powerful regimes to protect their strategic assets. Spartan colonists against the Scythian state from the Dniper to the Dardanelles also created a violent combination that almost constantly placed the region in chaos. At the same time, the region helped transmit Greek culture to Central Asia and southern Russia. During the last three centuries BCE, the region focused on trade with the new masters of the steppes, the Sarmatians, living in Asiatic Scythia on its border with the European Don area. The trade network near the Don region in the beginning of the third century BCE was marked by the city of Tanais. It was not until the first century BCE that the region was firmly part of the Roman Empire, and the Romans´ influence also ultimately led to the spread of Judaism and Christianity. 1. Language: English. Narrator: Mark Norman. Audio sample: http://samples.audible.de/bk/acx0/078318/bk_acx0_078318_sample.mp3. Digital audiobook in aax.