High Quality Content by WIKIPEDIA articles! Sangam literature refers to a body of classical Tamil literature created between the years c. 600 BCE to 300 CE.This collection contains 2381 poems composed by 473 poets, some 102 of whom remain anonymous The period during which these poems were composed is commonly referred to as the Sangam period, referring to the prevalent Sangam legends claiming literary academies lasting thousands of years, giving the name to the corpus of literature. Sangam literature is primarily secular dealing with everyday themes in a Tamil context. The poems belonging to the Sangam literature were composed by Dravidian Tamil poets, both men and women, from various professions and classes of society. These poems were later collected into various anthologies, edited, and with colophons added by anthologists and annotators around 1000 CE. Sangam literature fell out of popular memory soon thereafter, until they were rediscovered in the 19th century by scholars such as C. W. Thamotharampillai and U. V. Swaminatha Iyer.
High Quality Content by WIKIPEDIA articles! The ecclesia or ekklesia was the principal assembly of the democracy of ancient Athens during its "Golden Age" (480 404 BCE). It was the popular assembly, opened to all male citizens over the age of 30 by Solon in 594 BC meaning that all classes of citizens in Athens were able to participate, even the thetes. The ecclesia opened the doors for all citizens, regardless of class, to nominate and vote for magistrates indirectly voting for the Areopagus have the final decision on legislation, war and peace, and have the right to call magistrates to account after their year of office. In the 5th century BC their numbers amounted to about 43,000 people. However, only those wealthy enough to spend much of their time away from home would have been able to participate until Pericles' reforms in early 451-2 BCE allowing payment for jurors. The assembly was responsible for declaring war, military strategy, and electing strategoi and other officials. It originally met once every month, but later it met three or four times per month.
With rigorous instruction in topics ranging from grammar, music, and poetry to numeracy and religious ritual, formal systems of education developed for citizen classes during Greek and Roman antiquity still resonate in the twenty-first-century world. A Companion to Ancient Education presents the most up-to-date scholarship relating to the rise and spread of educational practices and theories in the Greek and Roman world from the seventh century BCE to the fifth century CE. Featuring contributions from leading international scholars in the field, essays trace the roots of classical education while utilizing the latest research findings and applying innovative historical syntheses to such topics as the development of educational institutions, citizen and non-citizen training, women's education, materials and methods for instruction, apprentice and craft learning, and more. Offering thought-provoking reassessments of the breadth and purposes of education in ancient society, readings also shed important new light on the complexity of the ancient phenomena of education in Greece and Rome--while also revealing the debts and affinities of educational practice to those of other ancient civilizations. Rooted in the latest scholarship, A Companion to Ancient Education sets a new standard in our understanding and appreciation of teaching and learning in Greco-Roman society.
This volume investigates the neighborhoods of ancient Rome during the reign of the first Roman Emperor, Caesar Augustus (27 BCE 14 CE). Focusing on a group of neighborhood-based voluntary associations that were important political and social communities for the city's diverse population of slaves and ex-slaves, it locates the Augustan neighborhoods within the broader context of the history of Rome. John Bert Lott stresses their importance as physical and cultural divisions of the city and investigates the distinctive relationship between local neighborhoods and Augustus himself. An interdisciplinary study that makes use of archaeological, epigraphic, and topographic evidence, this book makes an important contribution to our knowledge of the urban life of Rome's lower classes and to our understanding of the imperial ideology that supported the development of the dynastic Roman monarchy.
In this volume, Walter Brueggemann writes on Isaiah 1-39, which many scholars believe had a single author, Isaiah, of the eighth century BCE, who wrote in the context of the Assyrian empire between 742 and 701. Books in the Westminster Bible Companion series assist laity in their study of the Bible as a guide to Christian faith and practice. Each volume explains the biblical book in its original historical context and explores its significance for faithful living today. These books are ideal for individual study and for Bible study classes and groups.
Democratization is a sociopolitical process and the society that may grow out of it where people make decisions on matters affecting them. It is an unending struggle to win such rights and power, to hold and to extend them. The contending classes are essentially the poor and weak majority of the people and the elite of wealth, status, and power. This book begins with the study of politics in democratic Athens 508-322 BCE, and how it revolved around the divisions between an uneducated poor majority of citizens and a small, wealthy elite. All citizens were deemed equally capable of holding political office, and life in democratic Athens was itself an education through the wide political experience a citizen necessarily acquired. The second study is of Britain's centuries long and profoundly incomplete democratization, polarizing usually the urban poor, unequally against the Grandees, the oligarchy, and subsequent elites. A third exemplifier is South Africa, beginning in the 1970s-80s when two big processes were going on simultaneously: an external armed struggle led by the African National Congress (ANC), and a path-breaking domestic democratization represented by the United Democratic Front and the trade unions. The democratization that emerges here is a matter of aspiration and impulse by determined men and women, which fail more often than they succeed, yet appear again in other times and places. Two main models of democracy are in contention. A representative from revolving around free elections, in which competing elites 'get themselves elected' utilizing their wealth and celebrity. The liberal form achieved preeminence in Britain and the United States over some 150 years, but is now under serious threat from its own dysfunctionalities and the alienation of its citizens from its institutions and their elitist, self-serving values. And there is the participatory model, now being approached again since the mid-1970s in many places, from Portugal, Poland and Czechoslovakia, to South Africa, Tunisia, Egypt, and Iceland. Many such impulses will fail, but they offer hope, and on the record, immense satisfaction to their participants.
This book provides the first comprehensive history of Afro-Eurasia during the first millennium BCE and the beginning of the first millennium CE. The history of these 1300 plus years can be summed up in one word: connectivity. The growth in connectivity during this period was marked by increasing political, economic, and cultural interaction throughout the region, and the replacement of the numerous political and cultural entities by a handful of great empires at the end of the period. In the process, local cultural traditions were replaced by great traditions rooted in lingua francas and spread by formalized educational systems. This process began with the collapse of the Bronze Age empires in the east and west, widespread population movements, and almost chronic warfare throughout Afro-Eurasia, while the cavalry revolution transformed the nomads of the central Asian steppes into founders of tribal confederations assembled by charismatic leaders and covering huge territories. At the same time, new artistic and intellectual movements appeared, including the teachings of Socrates, Confucius, the Buddha, and Laozi. Increased literacy also allowed people from a wide range of social classes such as the Greek soldier Xenophon, the Indian Buddhist emperor Ashoka, the Roman emperor Marcus Aurelius, and elite women such as the poetess Sappho, the Christian martyr Perpetua, and the scholar Ban Zhao to create literary works. When the period ended in 300 CE, conditions had changed dramatically. Temperate Afro-Eurasia from the Atlantic to the Pacific was dominated by a handful of empires--Rome, Sassanid Persia, and Jin Empire-that ruled more than half the world's population, while an extensive network of trade routes bound them to Southeast and Central Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa and made possible the spread of new book based religions including Christianity, Manichaeism, Zoroastrianism, and Buddhism, thereby setting the stage for the next millennium of Afro-Eurasian history.
Dawn and Sunset: Insight into the Mystery of the Early Mesopotamian Civilization is a fascinating and highly readable look at the emergence, blossom, and decline of the Sumerian civilization. Presented as a constellation of pristine urban communities that mushroomed in Southern Mesopotamia throughout the IV and III millennia BCE, the study of Sumerian society is an informative and applicable mode of insight into our own times. From both a geographical and historical context, the study of Sumerian civilization is rife with intriguing questions about language, agriculture, arts & crafts, foreign trade, government, laws, social classes, and warfare.
The way that can be told is not the eternal Way; the name that can be named is not the eternal Name.' So begins the first verse of the mysterious Dao De Jing, foundation text of the ancient Chinese religion of Daoism. Often attributed to semi-mythical sage Laozi, the origins of this enigmatic document - which probably came into being in the third century BCE - are actually unknown. But the tenets of Daoism laid down in the Dao De Jing, and in later texts like the Yi Jing (or 'Book of Changes'), continue to exert considerable fascination, particularly in the West, where in recent years they have been popularised by writers such as the novelist Ursula K LeGuin. In this fresh and engaging introduction to Daoism, Ronnie L Littlejohn discusses the central facets of a tradition which can sometimes seem as elusive as the slippery notion of 'Dao' itself. The author shows that fundamental to Daoism is the notion of 'Wu-wei', or non-action: a paradoxical idea emphasising alignment of the self with the harmony of the universe, a universe in continual flux and change. This flux is expressed by the famous symbol of Dao, the 'taiji' representing yin and yang eternally correlating in the form of a harmonious circle. Exploring the great subtleties of this ancient religion, Littlejohn traces its development and encounters with Buddhism; its expression in art and literature; its fight for survival during the Cultural Revolution; and its manifestations in modern-day China and beyond. 'A marvellously detailed and highly readable history of Daoist religion and culture. The book also presents a wealth of information on how Daoism has shaped Chinese philosophy, politics and art throughout the centuries. A must-read for anyone who wants a fuller appreciation of Chinese history, and highly recommended for introductory classes on Chinese religions.' - James Miller, Associate Professor of Chinese Religions, Queen's University, Ontario, Canada